Not all ingested bacteria will be able to colonize the intestines upon arrival.  Some bacteria may not be adapted to living in the GI tract, and are merely passersby waiting to be ejected into the environment to find their favored niche.  Other bacteria are happy to be in the GI tract where nutrients are abundant, but must contend with the other hungry microbes and the vigilant immune system.  When competition is fierce, a particular bacterial species may “win” by producing toxins that k...

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